Henryk Skolimowski and Eco-Philosophy

When I was an undergraduate student at university, one of my professors tried to interest me in the work of the Polish eco-philosopher Henryk Skolimowski. While I found his approach intriguing, I was pursuing other matters and interests at the time and never followed up on that recommendation. It is perhaps time to rectify that, since I have come to appreciate eco-philosophy and eco-logic as the corrective to Mumford’s “Megamachine” and the threat of totalitarian capitalism.

So, the other day, I received in the mail a copy of Skolimowski’s book Let There Be Light: The Mysterious Journey of Cosmic Creativity, and it took me by surprise. Skolimowski, akin to other eco-philosophers like Rudolf Bahro, has moved from an eco-logical outlook to what can only be described perhaps as “mysticism”.

(Rudolf Bahro and I have an old relationship, in fact. Bahro was a dissident Marxist and a political prisoner in East Germany when I was a student in Germany. His “crime” was to try to reconcile Marxism with ecological thinking. I helped smuggle his books, which were drawing a lot of attention among young Germans in West Germany, back into East Germany. After I left Germany, Bahro was released to the West, where he co-founded what was probably the first Green Party. Bahro’s thinking also took a more mystical or spiritual turn later on).

I should perhaps qualify that notion when I suggest that Skolimowski and Bahro “moved” from a more eco-philosophical and eco-logical approach to a more “spiritual” approach, which seems to follow Jean Gebser’s anticipated trajectory of a “consciousness mutation”. That spiritual approach was already latent, tacit or incipient to eco-philosophy, but apparently not yet aware of itself as this prime mover (which I would refer to also as “return of the repressed”). Only gradually, by working with eco-philosophy as a kind of alchemical process, did the latent spiritual content of eco-logic emerge into consciousness in Skolimowski and Bahro’s cases as Gebser’s “diaphainon“. So, in those terms, they didn’t actually “move” from an eco-logical to a more spiritual emphasis and approach, since they were inseparable to begin with. It was, rather, a process of progressive unfolding or realisation of the implicit spiritual content within eco-logic that was attempting to make itself known and manifest, ie, the “Logos” proper.

This is what is intriguing about Skolimowski’s Let There Be Light. I’m unsure whether Skolimowski is aware of the work of Jean Gebser, but Let There Be Light might even be considered a manual for Enlightenment — for how to realise the tacit spiritual impetus that informs eco-logical thinking, that spiritual content being the Light-Energy entity — the “You of you” as Seth put it — that we are implicitly. That is Gebser’s “diaphainon“, and that is what Skolimowski is attempting to describe in Let There Be Light — not just to reveal the spiritual reality of Light-Energy implicit in ecological thinking, but to make it manifest as the true Self, as it were — the You of you. So, the book highlights a number of meditations that Skolimowski recommends for drawing out or facilitating the birth of this latent spiritual content which is Gebser’s “diaphainon“, and is the true “Logos” implicit in eco-logic.

I’m of two-minds about his meditations, which are really the form of guided visualisation. In some ways it’s nonsense. In some ways it’s not nonsense at all. Like the Buddha’s notion of the dharma as a “raft”, they might serve to carry one to the threshold of the diaphaneity, but they won’t bear you across the stream or carry you across the threshold. Only “letting go”, or achieving perfect inner silence will do that. Guided visualisation may be helpful to a point, but after that it just becomes another “mind-forg’d manacle” and a way for the “Emissary” to hold on to its grip on the awareness.

Eco-philosophy or eco-logic is certainly the new alchemy, the reconstitution of the Hermetic Philosophy. It seems clear that Skolimowski and Bahro traced it to its authentic roots, and discovered that its authentic roots lay in Gebser’s “ever-present origin” or “diaphainon“, which in Skolimowski is the latent reality of the “Light”, and the Light-Energy entity that we are implicitly. That is Gebser’s “vital centre” or core “self”, identical with the diaphainon. So, if you do read Let There Be Light, (which compares well with A.H. Almaas’s work, too), read it with Gebser in mind, and the seemingly nonsensical won’t seem so nonsensical at all.

I started The Dark Age Blog many years ago to warn about the dangers of a new Dark Age of decay, disintegration, and totalitarianism. Unfortunately, this danger has only intensified lately. I started the present Chrysalis to look for signs and tokens of the incipient “New Age” that Blake, Nietzsche, and Gebser foresaw also, and to highlight some of the correctives needed to overcome or outrun the annihilating and self-annihilating tendencies of the “Megamachine”. That has focussed mainly on the pressing need to discern between the Whole and the mere Totality. These are not synonyms for each other, as befits the meaning that “only a hair separates the false from the true”. One leads into Life, and the other into Death. It is legitimate to speak of a “totality” only when it never loses its implicit connection to the source — the Whole or ever-present, or which it is only an image in the mind.

And that’s the key to understanding also Iain McGilchrist’s important work on neurodynamics and the two modes of perception of the divided brain: The Master and His Emissary. That’s also key to understanding the distinction between Ultimate Truth and Relative Truth, otherwise called “the truth that sets free” and “the facts of the matter”.

It’s very subtle. It’s very paradoxical.

The best eco-philosophy and eco-logic already began with a presentiment or intuition about the Whole, and by following that presentiment or intuition through thinking — a kind of alchemical process in itself — they “arrived” at the Holy, or the spiritual. But the Whole (or McGilchrist’s “Master”) was already knocking on the door before they took up pen and paper to compose their thoughts on eco-philosophy. Any kind of ecological thinking or philosophy that begins with the bits and pieces and tries to assemble these into a Whole is just bad philosophy and bad ecology.

I wouldn’t despair of thinking, as many seem to do today. Thinking also is dharma. “Right thinking”, as one of the Buddha’s eightfold path, can indeed bear you to the threshold of the holy. It just can’t carry you across the threshold. That’s what the “leap of faith” does, or what is called “dropping it” or “letting go”. This is, apparently, the course that Skolimowski and Bahro took — they followed their nose, as it were, and it led them from the logical into the spiritual, even though there isn’t that great a separation in reality (the logical corresponding to the “Emissary” mode of consciousness and the spiritual correponding to the “Master” mode of consciousness, in McGilchrist’s terms). Dualistic thinking is quite inappropriate in understanding the relationship of the logical and the spiritual, which is also paradoxical.

What is so interesting about Bahro’s journey, or Skolimowski’s also, is how beautifully it illustrates one of Blake’s verses. It could be even taken as the “voice” of The Master…

I GIVE you the end of a golden string;
Only wind it into a ball,
It will lead you in at Heaven’s gate,
Built in Jerusalem’s wall.…


30 responses to “Henryk Skolimowski and Eco-Philosophy”

  1. davidm58 says :

    And speaking of eco-philosophy, don’t forget to finish Daniel Kealey’s book, “Revisioning Environmental Ethics.”

    1. Environmental Ethics and Psychohistory
    2. Mental and Magical Environmental Ethics
    3. Mythic and Integral Environmental Ethics
    4. Plotinus on Nature and Contemplation and the One.
    5. All Life is Yoga
    6. Toward an Integral Ecological Ethic

    • Scott Preston says :

      Oops. Thanks for the reminder. Yes, I should finish that. In fact, I should restart it. It’s sitting here accusingly on my desk, at the bottom of a pile of books, I was distracted from it by my diversion into Plotinus and never returned afterwards.

      I think I mentioned that I bought a copy for a friend? He quipped that it read like it was Kealey’s PhD thesis. That’s probably true. I does read like that.

      • davidm58 says :

        Well, yes, and Kealey admits as much in the introduction.

        “The book is a revision of my doctoral dissertation at the State University of New York at Stony Brook. It still bears some of the weaknesses of a dissertation, particularly the long and numerous endnotes. However, the rewards that the diligent reader will get by flipping back to the notes will more than counterbalance the inconvenience involved.”

        • Dwig says :

          Anyone who’s read EPO has probably learned to put a bookmark in the Notes section and move it forward in step with the main text.

  2. abdulmonem says :

    It seems there is a forced movement toward the light, the light of heavens and earth as the Koran describes god, who does not gives his light of knowledge without plan. Those who receives it should be respectful and say nothing but the truth. John Micheal Greer has erected a new site under the name of ecosophia, heading toward ecological spirituality away from god with the main emphasis of the mystical teachings of the living earth, like most of those who can not release themselves from the bondage of the fragmented mentality forgetting that the mental is only one dimension of the multi-varied aspects of the soul perception. The soul that cannot forget its divine spiritual source that encompasses everything without being encompassed. Thank you for exposing us to this ecological trend and its intention to stop the threat of the mega-machine and the narcissistic bulldozer that is killing everything beautiful. It is sad that most people are not inclined to align their vibration with the divine vibration,the source of consciousness expansion despite the many spiritual schools that give some hints in operating such alignment. The main burden is personal the teachers or schools only give guidance and leave it to the person to seek his unique path to god. The tools to engender the alignment are available waiting for the true seekers to use. I pursue my spiritual development in the realm of the god, the light of heavens and earth, the first, the last, the seen, the unseen ,the one whose existence is prior to our existence and remains in existence after the end of our existence, everything perishes but his face. At the end I want to defend Goethe from ascribing to him the ugly saying that he despises other to protect himself from despising himself.

    • mikemackd says :

      > At the end I want to defend Goethe from ascribing to him the ugly saying that he despises other to protect himself from despising himself,

      I stand corrected, Abdul Monem. The quote was from Luc de Clapiers de Vauvenargues, not Goethe. I had misattributed it years ago.

      However, I quoted it as an eighteenth-century equivalent of Mumford’s insight of transferred reproach – a common human failing of those unaware of the trap of scapegoating others with one’s own flaws. I do not think that either person intended it as a policy, but as a warning.

  3. mikemackd says :

    Scott and I.W., concerning your discussion of arithmology last week, I just came across the following on p. 139 of Mumford’s The Condition of Man:

    The stars that interested medieval man, for example, were not nature’s stars, but the stars of astrological lore: stars that guided the Magi to Bethlehem or foretold one’s luck in love or war. The four points of the compass were not just geographical directions: they pointed, as Honorius d’Autun made clear in De Imagine Mundi, to a mystical arithmetic: there was a mysterious connection with the four elements, air, earth, water, and fire; with the four rivers of paradise; with the four winds; with the four humors of the body; with the four cardinal virtues of the soul. The four sciences of the Quadrivium, plus the three sciences of the Trivium, produced seven: both three and four, magical in themselves, had magical consequences: the seven planets, the seven virtues, the seven deadly sins, the seven tones of the Gregorian chant all exhibited this secret correspondence between thoughts and things. Even Thomas Aquinas pointed out at length the exquisite fitness of the seven sacraments, which corresponded to the seven ages of man.

    Every factual observation, every actual experience, had at least a double meaning: its mundane and its super-rational meaning: sometimes layer upon layer of devious meanings. Life was an allegory, a mystery, a miracle.

    Also, I am getting ready to move, and so have been packing up my books. The day before yesterday I found one called “The Theology of Arithmetic”, attributed to the fourth century A.D.’s Iamblichus (1988, Kairos, Phanes Press, Grand Rapids).

    Very Star Key-ey.

    • mikemackd says :

      I just read the Foreword to the book by Keith Critchlow, which literally “connects the dots” to explain why the Pythagoreans used to swear by the Holy Tetraktys, and consider that four and ten were as one.

      Someone has put the book online at https://www.pdf-archive.com/2016/11/03/docslide-us-iamblichus-the-theology-of-arithmeticpdf/docslide-us-iamblichus-the-theology-of-arithmeticpdf.pdf

    • mikemackd says :

      By the way, if you go to the topmost triangle of the Star Key, you will find its central 9 surrounded by 5,5,8,9,1,4, and 4. Accepting:

      1) that all the so-called hard facts of science “are informational transformations by the viscoelastic brain” (MacLean 1990, The Triune Brain in Evolution; Role in Paleocerebral Functions. New York and London, Plenum Press p. 5), and

      2) McGilchrist’s reports that our right hemisphere frames our valuations – points to what we get our left hemisphere to examine, and

      3) Aquinas’s dictum that “the decision always rests with perception”, and so on and on:

      Then those surrounding numbers can be thereby interpreted as three along the Fibonacci series – 55, 89, and 144. Dividing any number in that series by the one before results in ever-closer approximations to the golden ratio, which is precisely the (square root of 5 plus 1)/2.

      The reciprocals of these numbers each have particular qualities:

      1/55 = = F(n) x 8-(n+1) = 0.018181818 …

      The reciprocal of the second number, bringing us to the topmost nine of the Star Key, (and also to the central nine, 1/89 =
      1/89 = 0.0
      + 1
      + 1
      + 2
      + 3
      + 5
      + 8
      + 13
      + 21
      + 34
      + 55
      + 89
      + 144
      + 233
      + 377
      + 610
      + 987
      + 1597
      + etc… (the successive Fibonacci Numbers)
      = 0.01123595505617977528089887640449438202247191 (another repeating fraction)…

      The third reciprocal, of 144, is 0.006944444444 … ( a third repeating fraction)

      This third reciprocal contains the particular quality of, when being multiplied by 1000 and divided into 360, as in the sacred year in Egypt and elsewhere, degrees in a circle and so on, provides the answer “51.84”. That number, when expressed as degrees of that same 360 degree circle, is precisely the angle of ascent of the Great Pyramid of Giza. The resultant height of the pyramid, used as a radius, marks out a circle of a similar circumference to the base of the pyramid.

      Perhaps, when placed alongside my explanation of Genesis’s six days of creation (again, it has been resurrected from the advertisements by someone and put at http://www.geocities.ws/mikemackd/), that could help to explain why they went to so much trouble?

      • mikemackd says :

        Darn. The above didn’t paste correctly; with 1/89, each successive number retreats a decimal point. If you Google 1/89, you will find it clearly set out on several websites.

        • mikemackd says :

          I don’t normally encounter the word “scapegoat”, so I was surprised to see it pop up again after I had used it in my reply to abdulmonem’s post above. It appeared in the context of the great pyramid.

          It seems that there is a mythical belief amongst some that Archangel Raphael bound the scapegoat-demon Azazel in the bottomless pit, just as the demon I mentioned before was chained beneath Mt Demavend in the Zoroastrian myth.

          In this myth though, the great pyramid was placed over the pit to lock the demon in until the end times.

          This is the first time I have ever published the above interpretation of the top triangle of the Star Key. You may recall that the Book of Revelations has lots of Star Key-ey numbers: the seventh this and that, the 144,000 (as in deriving the angle of the pyramid from the Star Key’s top triangle), and others therein.

          So I guess I have just used the Star Key as the key to the apocalypse, opening the bottomless pit and triggering Armageddon.

          In which case I can only respond as Scott did above: oops.

          I hope I don’t get scapegoated for that! But, as I have said here before, the things about myths is they never were but always are and, furthermore as the Thomas Theorem states, things don’t have to be real to be real in their consequences..

  4. Scott Preston says :

    Guardian columnist Deborah Orr on the estrangement from nature. Pretty good, short article


    • mikemackd says :

      In the light of Deborah Orr’s article, this incident, reported by Mumford on p. 70 of The Condition of Man, can be seen as emblematic of our times with regard to climate change:

      “As Augustine lay dying in Hippo, the Vandals were already fighting at the gates of his city; and, as a contemporary observer remarked, the screams of those dying in battle were mingled with the shouts of the undisturbed crowd in the arena.”

      • mikemackd says :

        I can see the headlines now: “after lengthy negotiations, Jesus agrees to postpone the Second Coming until after the Superbowl.”

      • Scott Preston says :

        You would certainly appreciate the film I just finished watching moments ago. It arrived in the mail today — Idiocracy. Apparently, not just a satirical fantasy about the near future.

    • mikemackd says :

      Another comment from The Condition of Man that I just encountered which resonates to me here:

      [T]he life that man re-lives in the mind is his true heaven and hell. Human existence is a twice-told tale, and only through that part of it which is translated into meaningful symbols and valuable patterns of conduct does man truly come into possession of his kingdom. The great task of human life is to remain fully alive both on the plane of organic existence and on the plane of symbolic participation. The movement of life into the ideal realm in which all existence has meaning, form, and value, and the passage of these ideas back again into life is the essential systole and diastole of the human heart. All the extra dimensions added by man’s symbols provide both a deeper fulfillment and a further continuation of his biological existence: to reproduce and develop himself he must equally reproduce and develop his immaterial heritage. Man’s earthly life, in short, involves the existence of another transcendental world: a world of durable meanings and values that in time detach themselves from the flux of history, and loose their narrow ties to time and place. Only a small part of human existence actually goes into this other world; and a still smaller fraction is passed on from generation to generation, from culture to culture, from epoch to epoch. But that little is infinitely precious; and its accumulation is what constitutes human progress.

      Religion, art, ethics, philosophy, poetry, science — these are the ultimate agents in man’s self-transformation. All man’s other acts, deeds, acquisitions, discoveries, masteries, are significant only to the extent that they finally find expression in these realms. This is an old conception; it could hardly be otherwise. With good reason Dante was grateful to his old teacher, Brunetto Latini, whom he encountered in Hell, because he “taught me how man makes himself eternal.” There are many ways of interpreting this task, and man has often childishly misconceived the means of bringing it about: but it remains the supreme task of every community and every personality. That is why the supernatural theology of the Middle Ages was closer to reality than the crass materialism of an age which fancies that the achievement of an “economy of abundance” will automatically ensure a maximum of human felicity …

      Every synthesis, however full and all-embracing, is the expression of a particular cultural moment: the more complete the structure seems, the more surely must it be shattered if it is to hold future experience. To aim at unity is the prime condition of life: to hold on to this unity, to immobilize it, is the prelude to death. The very forces that make for unity must in time break it down through further growth.

      • mikemackd says :

        I think if McGilchrist were to read this – and, at least as far as I am aware, he has made no reference to Mumford at all – he would interpret this quote as an instance of inter-hemispheric synergy in action: the right hemisphere’s penchant for novelty mastering, via transcending and including, the left hemisphere’s for fixity.

        BTW Scott, Mumford refers to Rosenstock-Huessy on p. 93 of this book as follows:

        To make this death-in-life more acceptable, the monk habituated himself to a premature senility: the bald head of the aged, the grave manner, the confined circuit of movement, as if limited by lameness, characterized his appearance and his habit. Dr. Rosenstock-Huessy has suggested that this adaptation was primarily an effort to redress the lack of actual old people in this society: a lack due to the excessive shortness of human life, which gave a preponderance in numbers to the immature and thoughtless, with their high vitality and their limited experience.

        • Scott Preston says :

          That’s surprising to read, and I’m not sure from where Mumford took that reference to Rosenstock-Huessy. Seems odd, considering all the other matter he could have referenced in ERH. I’m assuming that might be from ERH’s The Age of the Church (Gebser also cites that book by ERH). I’ve not yet read that particular work.

          • mikemackd says :

            I can’t say either. The following comment by Mumford, though, appeared on an online blurb for ERH’s Out of Revolution:

            “Rosenstock-Huessy’s is a powerful and original mind. What is most important in this philosopher’s work is the understanding of the relevance of traditional values to a civilization still undergoing revolutionary transformations; and this contribution will gain rather than lose significance in the future.”

      • davidm58 says :

        That is a great quote, Mike. BTW, i just found a Mumford book at the Salvation Army thrift shop: “Interpretations and Forecasts: 1922-1972 – “The one-volume Mumford: the essential thought of one of the most distinguished writers of our time.” The selections in this book were chosen by Mumford himself.

        • mikemackd says :

          David, I have managed to accumulate 34 pages of notes from that work, scattered about on the net, and I also have some of the essays he selected to put in there, but do not have the work itself.

          If this one I am reading is any guide, you have a great journey ahead!

          All the best with it,


          • abdulmonem says :

            I googled interpretations and forecasts and read an interesting article on the book by new York times and read these shrewd diagnosis of the maladies of the time that shout loud, how cites killed communities. How the divorce of knowledge from values and the self interest person from communities enhance each other toward collapse. We have no lack of true thinkers but our problems resides in the shortage of honest actors in all human fields. It seems we are living in time of settlement where liars are identified and exposed to let the truthful lead or our civilizations will be busted like those who have busted along the humans historical landscape. There is a wise setup for this cosmos that leaves nothing unattended to, but everything takes its cycle only to be taken in the prescribed time which is kept secret like the hour of our death. Humans are asked to correct themselves in front of the unseen in order to protect them from the fear of the seen.

  5. abdulmonem says :

    As a god winger, the tragedy of our world is in its estrangement from god not from nature. He who forgets god,god makes him/her forgets him/herself. Our forgetfulness of our higher self is the cause of our mess. The kind of words we use are the energy that moves us up or down. No wonder the sage of Rumi laughed at the mess the humans created for themselves, knowing that god oppresses nobody but people oppress themselves. It is a problem of mismanagement.

  6. Dwig says :

    From the main article: “Any kind of ecological thinking or philosophy that begins with the bits and pieces and tries to assemble these into a Whole is just bad philosophy and bad ecology.”

    This reminded me of Stephen Talbott’s criticism of neo-Darwinism; worth a read…

  7. abdulmonem says :

    Thank you Dwig, Yes we do need humility,for the sea of god has no shoreline and its waves are endless.There is a verse in the Koran that reads, and say to them to travel across the earth to see how creation has started Chapter 29 verse 20. Is not it strange to find such a verse in such a book. So the Royal society supplied Beagle and sent Darwin with a team to walk the earth to see how god started his magnificent creation but perversion set in and instead ,they entered the field of speculation and fabrication, coming with the perverted idea that there is no god but random natural selection. and thus have thrown humanity in the commotion of useless discourse. Some time god puzzles me in his extraordinary patience as to such falsification, then I remember the story of Lot and how he did not destroy the ugly city until only one hopeful family is left. It is mythical but what can I do if I am oriented to the world of the mythical. We are all in a state of wait to face the truthfulness or falseness of our earthly accomplishments.

    • InfiniteWarrior says :

      sent Darwin with a team to walk the earth to see how god started his magnificent creation but perversion set in and instead, they entered the field of speculation and fabrication, coming with the perverted idea that there is no god but random natural selection.

      In Darwin’s defense, he didn’t do that himself.

      Darwin thought of natural selection by analogy to how farmers select crops or livestock for breeding, which he called “artificial selection.” In his early manuscripts, he referred to a “Nature” which would do the selection. At the time, other mechanisms of evolution such as evolution by genetic drift were not yet explicitly formulated, and Darwin believed that selection was likely only part of the story….

      [A]fter reading Darwin, Herbert Spencer introduced the phrase “survival of the fittest,” which became a popular summary of the theory. The fifth edition of On the Origin of Species published in 1869 included Spencer’s phrase as an alternative to natural selection, with credit given: “But the expression often used by Mr. Herbert Spencer of the Survival of the Fittest is more accurate, and is sometimes equally convenient.” Although the phrase is still often used by non-biologists, modern biologists avoid it because it is tautological if “fittest” is read to mean “functionally superior” and is applied to individuals rather than considered as an averaged quantity over populations.

      I believe that first sentence was intended to read, “Darwin thought of Natural Selection by analogy as opposed to “artificial selection….” I think this kind of “thinking” more in keeping with McGilchrist’s “Master and Emissary” modes. To the best of my knowledge, Darwin himself never defined “Natural Selection” in terms of “random” or “automatic” events. Such “convenient” shorthand (or is it all-too-convenient sleight-of-hand?) made an appearance much later.

      There are those who blame science for all our problems and just as many who posit that only science can “save us from ourselves,” which is not something Sagan ever suggested, either, though many people insist he did. Science can be as much a “candle in the dark” as religion. Both are very simply methods and practices. Neither were ever intended to become ideologies claiming to possess the ultimate answers to everything.

      The “science against religion” (and vice versa) crap has to stop. “Versus” means “to turn” and “as opposed to” doesn’t necessarily mean “against” in a contradictory and irreconcilable sense, but very simply “opposite.” These “disciplines” — science and religion — were never intended to be mutually exclusive or, especially, annihilating of one another, but complementary.

      • Dwig says :

        It’s always seemed to me that science, when practiced in a humble, learningful frame of mind, is as spiritual a practice as any. So yes, IW, I very much agree with your assessment. In fact, we could add the arts to this pair and see a triad: the good, the true, and the beautiful.

  8. Charles says :

    That is a good quote from Mumford. He is one of those writers who articulate a transcendental vision. Here is a quote from Henryk Skolimowski

    The universe is to be conceived as home for man. We are not insignificant dust residing in oneobscure corner of the universe, but a cause, or at least
    a result of a most spectacular process in which all forces of the universe have cooperated. This is at once a dazzling and humbling prospect. For we are
    the custodians of the entire evolution and at the same time only the spear of the arrow of evolution. We should feel comfortable in this universe, for we are
    not an anomaly, but its crowning glory. We are not lost in it, or alienated from it, for it is us. . . .

  9. gumersindo says :

    . Another gossip from The experimental condition of Man that I just encountered which resonates to me here:
    [T]he spirit that homo re-lives in the psyche is his unfeigned Eden and hell.

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